Erosion Monitoring


BIOMARINE’s biological regeneration Oasis



The Protection & Development of the Sea Flora & Fauna


Artificial macro-algae applied on Tecnoreef Modules reduce the time of colonization and facilitate the achievement of eco-system maturity.
From the analysis and the Progressive evolutions of the applications over the years in the Mediterranean Sea, today Tecnoreef modules are able to develop a substantial increase from 9 to 42 times the quantity of Fish that was present in the same Marine environment before the placing of our modules.

Fig.1 – Star fish inside a Tecnoreef Module cavity – Sardinia 2005


Reducing the risk of over-fishing

In all the seas of the world, but in particular the seas which have similarities from a biological and chemical point of view, such as the Mediterranean sea, the Adriatic sea and the Arab sea where the problem for the reduction of the fishing stock is even more evident.
The reasons are numerous and arise from pollution to unlawful indiscriminate over-fishing. These are the main causes that have increased the difficulty of reproduction by certain fish species.
It is a known fact that many species of fish change sex in the ageing state. It is then essential to protect the aged exemplars more sedentary and mistrustfully because the reproduction of the species is left to the group in its whole integrity and not to the occasional meeting of single exemplars. 
The Protection that can and must be given is to aid the creation of Protected Atolls at a calculated distance between them, with the purpose of building a real and proper Sea Garden for the reproduction and the protection of the various species.
It is vital to acknowledge and consider the biological requirements of the species that we wish to protect, obviously, on top of the main characteristics of the said specie, this would be the only way possible to create a tailor made to measure habitat for the particular environment to be protected. 

The Oasis must then be developed and structured in a very scrupulous way, characterised by a number of cavities of different shapes and sizes, to allow both light inside its structures and flows of wandering sea currents that will bring nourishment, even to the most hidden parts of the structures. If the Sea Garden is realised with conscious attention, it will permit the various species to always occupy the same spot, in doing so, declaring their preference for certain physical characteristics instead of others.

Fig.2 – An Octopus in the Tecnoreef cave the preferred food of the Grouper fish – Five Lands 2006


TECNOREEF structure placed in Dubai was repopulated by numerous exemplars of Grouper (HAMOUR) species within 3 days of been placed and during the period of the laying process regardless of the presence of barges, pontoons and divers in the area.

Fig.3 – Sand type Hamour in Tecnoreef module – Dubai 2003


THE HAMOUR and his characteristics

The Hamour, called the Gulf Grouper by the Americans or Epinephulus Guaza (in Latin), is a big fish, sturdy and powerful with an oval body compressed on the sides and a very imposing head. The lower jaw protrudes out in respect of the upper jaw with very meaty and noticeable lips.  Its teeth are long and sharp on both the upper and lower jaws. Its back is of a brownish colour, the flanks are of a lighter colour and its belly is of a yellowish colour as is the external part of its lips.

CerniaThe grouper can achieve a growth of one meter in length and Kg 60 in weight. It reproduces in summer when they abandon the abysses to swim back toward the coast. It is a carnivorous fish and feeds on clams, crustaceans and fish, yet his preferred dish remains the Octopus which it pursues with ferocity and fury. When it spots one it will attack immediately, without truce, devours and bites its tentacles one by one until the octopus cannot cling on to the rocks and is eaten in one mouthful.   

The natural Habitat of the HAMOUR:   the two cavities

The Hamour is the king of the cavities, the unchallenged monarch of the Cyclopes falls of the rocks that overlap themselves toward the seabed, a lonely keeper of the submerged cathedrals and a clever inhabitant of the most remote habitat of an artificial reef. It lives closely in touch with the seabed, at between ten to four hundred meters, anywhere where there are cavities and lot of tranquility. 
Una bella Cernia nel suo ambiente naturaleIt lives mainly in the Arabic Sea and the Mediterranean Sea. It is occasionally found in some areas of the Atlantic Ocean (Florida).
Apart from the seasonal vertical emigration, the grouper is a habitual fish that loves to frequent the same places. 
For this nature, the Hamour chooses a hunting zone in the middle of his domain of its stable dwelling and never goes too far from it. The grouper has two types of dwellings which are quite different from each other, the residential dwelling, almost inaccessible to anyone and the second dwelling is solely used for hunting or to hide in case of unexpected danger.
The caves of the groupers have particular characteristics, a rarity too among the fish just as if there were housing shortage. It frequently happens that if a grouper is caught, returning to its cave after a few days it would not be a surprise to see that another exemplar more or less of the same weight as the previous, has not lost any time in occupying the empty dwelling.  
The cave of the Grouper will produce results even after years.
The grouper is an animal that likes to sleep and eat alone, moreover, in areas particularly calm with few predators. In this case it is possible to see them in groups of 3 or 4 of the same size. 
It is evident of how perfect the TECNOREEF structure is to realize this type of cave, to create a SEA GARDEN for a large quantity and variety of fish with a simple solution that assure rapid results.
Our experience has taught us to build artificial dwellings specially dedicated to the habits of each type of fish; in this sample, the Hamour in our structures it always chooses the same spot at a pre-define distance of another exemplar of its specie.

Conclusions: TECNOREEF Cavities and TECNOREEF for the food

With TECNOREEF structures it is possible:

  • To increase the bio-diversity of the system with the introduction of ecological cavities diversified in function of lightness, depth and temperature.
  • To develop, particularly in entropic waters, a biomass (mussels, oysters and other micro-organisms) to transform the human pollution into food for the fish.
  • To create shelters and exercise a recalling effect on the forms of water life, both for the adult and young alike, that are attracted by the barrier that has become, in time, food producer/dispenser.
  • To create caves, tunnels and arcades.
  • To create shadow and light differences depending of the time of the day.
  • To create internal currents to feed and oxygenate the structures.
  • To create structures with various inclinations of the walls to favor the different growth of the sea-weeds.


Fig.4 – Fish nursery in Tecnoreef – Calabria 2006

The creation of a TECNOREEF structure assures, in fact, the capability of cavities both for dwelling and for hunting while in the meantime attracts on and around the Tecnoreef structures the presence of smaller caliber fish.

The whole Feeding Chain

It is a very important fact and must be underlined, that is, an intervention of re-naturalization does not only develop one species of fish, for what we will be doing, is to reconnect all the broken links of the feeding chain; thus re-enforcing the food chain. Also, within the hamour environment, the collateral species such as prawns and mussels alike are regenerated.


The species in the photograph are the kind that normally lives in the regenerated coastal eco-system. To better explain this, we have attached a drawing of a small Atoll. The focal point is to create a protected area, a peaceful area where marine life can regenerate and continue regenerating itself and become a major source of fish & fauna reproduction. In the sample project, each marine species occupies a specific place to reproduce itself and always in the same place. The prawns love the external periphery of the structure while the oysters enjoy being in the gaps found at the highest part of the structure where the current is strongest.


There is the possibility of creating a multiple environment for various fish which makes Tecnoreef modules the best innovative structural instrument of its kind for the conservation and development of the Marine Species.

Tecnoreef’s Project of a Re-Naturalization oasis.