BioMarine

UNDERWATER ECO-TECHNOLOGY

Introduction
Erosion
Repopulation
Pollution
Scubaland
Anchorage
Erosion Monitoring

Erosion

Many kilometres of coast line are now lined with large limestone concrete rocks, acting as water breakers, very close to the beach.
These rocks are the coastal defences built in the hope to slow down or prevent any further “EROSION” of coastal land.

There are more advanced techniques, but the complexity of certain implants will create collateral effect such as moving the problem of coastal erosion to the adjacent and unprotected beach which could destroy the floral and fauna in the unprotected waters. In both cases the results are devastating for they destroy the panoramic scenery as it also stops the circulation of the waters.

TECNOREEF is the ultimate solution to eradicate these problems.

A system of sectional structures that have been developed to fully respect and assist the development and regeneration of the sea environment. After years of research carried out by Italian and international institutes, we have created the most efficient eco-compatible system for the preservation of marine resources.

 

 From this..... 01 Nov 2002                    To this....... 22 June 2003

Anti-Erosion

Within 6 months at UMM SUQAIM Harbour, Dubai, U.A.E. 

 

The research and analysis of the TECNOREEF SYSTEM has been carried out in close cooperation with:

  • University of Trieste - Department of Sea Biology
  • University of Trieste – DISGAM
  • University of Genoa – DIPTERIS
  • University of Aquila - LIAM - Department of Engineering
    in-Ground and Water Structures
  • Ancona CNR - ISMAR – IRPEM
  • University of Ljubljana (Slovenia)
  • Consortium New Venice

 

 

IMPACT ON THE ENVIROMENT

An EROSION project and the environmental impact on the fish population of the areas concerned can be summarized as follows:

  • Coastal Monitoring.
  • Coastal maintenance can be carried out respecting the natural equilibrium.
  • There is no visual impact from the shore as the top of the structures are about 1 meter under the sea level.
  • The structures are not toxic.
  • The concerned areas can regenerate.
  • The necto-bentic fish species multiply.
  • The fishing of necto-bentic species can be improved. The outputs of fishing will be slightly higher than in areas without     artificial structures control.
  • Tourist will have the possibility to see various species of fish whilst visiting the  artificial sea

 barrier.This is an important tourist attraction.

 

MOTIVATION FOR THE CHOICE OF THE MODULAR ELEMENTS PYRAMIDAL ARRANGEMENT

The scientific work carried out by research institutes both nationally and internationally has proven the ecological role of the heterogeneity and of the spatial gradient.

  • They allow for the distribution of energy produced by the waves, therefore, lessening their force before they reach the shore.
  • They favour the deposition of sediment at the entrance and also between the barrier and the beach.
  • They guarantee a good circulation of the water in the protected areas.
  • There is no visual impact.
  • They develop especially in eutropic waters  biomass such as mussels, oysters and other sessile organisms.
  • They function as shelters.

Because of the greater spatial heterogeneity, enriches and diversifies the superior aquatic population compared to that close to the rocky substrata.

The pyramidal forms of the modules that we propose have innovative and technical characteristics which satisfy these requirements. The tilted surfaces avoid the accumulation of sediment caused by the river or sea undulation, they also allow a definitive anchorage to the sea bed.

Tecnoreef structures for the realisation of artificial barriers determine a diversification of the system, they also increase the attraction and concentration of various species of marine life. This also involves enrichment in terms of number and type of fish population settling around the barrier resulting in a benefit for tourism.

 

ANALYSIS OF THE STRUCTURES AND OUTPUT

The “Tecnoreef” structure is always ‘custom made’ and adapts to the geographical characteristics of the site it is placed on.

The Tecnoreef Barrier is made of a long chain of filters. Its rings are constituted by the Tecnoreef Pyramids. According to our experiences in using the modules, we recommend three rows of filters. We are convinced that this system will result in a good compromise between the output and the cost of the structure. The effect of the filter is the key to the functioning of the system.

       

The structures have been designed in order to guarantee the permeability of them without lessening their efficiency (graphic of Claus & Habel). The modules are designed to oppose the minimum resistance possible against the impact of the force of the sea.


The permeability of this type of composition decreases in the direction of the waves’ motion. There is an elevated dissipation of energy and a very low transmission of the force received by a completely elastic structure. The efficiency of the structures, in terms of a relative deposition on the back of a barrier, strongly depends on the DC value. This fact has also been confirmed by Claus & Habel (2000) for the systems of artificial “filter reefs“.

The structure before a series of waves

Working phase of the barrier

Structure at phase pause

Tecnoreef test barrier at
LIAM Laboratory

Barrier Function – starting point

Working phase of the barrier

Incremented profile of the beach

TECHNICAL DESCRIPTION OF THE STRUCTURE


The basic form of the manufactured modules is made of armed concrete composed of octagonal plates which also have holes forming a circle. The plates are tilted and leaned against each other. They are either joined to form a simple basic pyramid or if needed they can be assembled into more complex pyramids. Once assembled they have the following characteristics:

COMPOSITION

INCREASED STABILITY

The continuous mechanical movement of the waters generates a force that always moves towards the sea bed. The basic forms are put at the base of the structure, allowing the unload of the force onto the seabed, i.e. they receive the same force at any point of the structure and the tilted plates anchor and stabilise the structure on the seabed enabling it to withstand the push and pull of the tides. Furthermore, the base of the structure is always larger than its peak because the weight is unloaded on every single base plate, therefore, avoiding the sinking of the structure into the seabed.

ABSORPTION OF THE CURRENT

At the outside of the plates, the friction caused by the absorption of the flow of tides generates superficial turbulences which are accentuated by the presence of various tilted surfaces. Such geometric deformities of every single element allows continuous circular flows (water’s spheres) which they deflect upwards causing their relative energy to lessen the force of the waves.

LIGHTNESS

The presence of cavities guarantees the penetration of sunlight into the structure and creates an even further variety of dens and ravines in the constructions.

 

 

 

TRANSMISSION OF SPECIFIC FREQUENCIES

Specific frequencies are those of the sounds produced by the marine life species that are attracted by the structures. The latter reproduce the frequency of eventual shoals and acts as a transmitting element. The angles of the plates and the particular positioning of the holes generates, especially in taller compositions, micro tides with the proper frequency of 2-10 MHz. These tides are also amplified by the complexity of the structures and favour the colonization around them.

SEA FRIENDLY CONCRETE
(does not interfere with the ecological system)

Concrete is the basic element for the production of the pyramid’s elements. They are made up of natural elements sand wash and crushed gravel, compound materials such as brick pieces, debris, etc. are not used. The concrete used does not contain any additives to fluidize and improve the product nor does it use disarming synthetic or additive effervescent products that might disturb the surface’s pH balance. The latter are formed mechanically and then brushed up.

THE MICROHOLES OF THE SURFACE

The testing of the wave effects with three different frequencies on a full-size dice of special concrete allow a mechanical treatment that creates small hollows on the surface of the pyramid. These can be of one centimetre or as small as a tenth of one millimetre. They are the perfect shelter for many species including the smallest corals facilitating their taking root.

The parameters of PoPe & Dean (1986) are applied: X/Ds distance of the structures from the line of the coast. The depth of the structures is 25. These values are necessary in order to have the right proportion for the length of the barrier. The distances are of 0.5 to 2.0.

 

The reinforcement used to make up and connect the structures are the mechanical nuts and bolts which join the various elements are made of stainless steel (AISI 304). They are resistant to corrosion therefore absolutely unalterable in seawater.
Various types of steel with special heavy metals (vanadium, tungsten, titanium) are not used because their chemical reactivity modifies the acidity of the surrounding area and the current of electrolysis in the structures, generating the passage of ions in the metallic elements therefore leading to corrosion.

 

THE APPROPRIATE pH

The values of acidity/base (pH) of concrete commonly found in commerce are of around 12. That of the sea is 8.3. This discrepancy of acidity between different substances inhibits the taking root and the growth of some species of marine life. The pH value of the structure is modified through a particular procedure that is the addition of an inactive mineral dust. This allows the immediate development of forms of life present in the concerned areas, even the most delicate coral larva. The composition of the concrete structure is constantly checked by the competent laboratory i.e. the growing species are analyzed monthly by a laboratory authorized by the Department of Public Works (D.M.28.01.98 n°s43268). In this way the composition of the concrete is quality checked regularly and consequently certified.

NO RELEASE OF POLLUTING SUBSTANCES

The use of sea friendly concrete is OUR ONLY PREROGATIVE in order to avoid any eventual pollution of the aquatic environment. The pH value of 9 is reached through the emission of inactive natural sands. The just mentioned process of the single elements is the result of tests in which only natural products have been used with the addition of a natural (secret) composite researched by us.

The components are of the AISI 304 type unassailable and unalterable in water with a guaranteed duration of over 50 years.

Ministry of Environment and Territory Protection

Protected Sea Areas and Coastal National Parks Comparing Experiences and Best Practice
Rome, 28th November 2005

 

COASTAL EROSION PROTECTION

Alessandra Spagnolo & Gianna Fabi
CNR – ISMAR ANCONA
ISMAR           Sea Science Institute
 
EVOLUTION OF THE MODULES USED TO BUILD ARTIFICIAL BARRIERS (ABs)

From the 1970s to this day, the “IRPEM” module has been the most commonly use. It consists of a concrete cube, side: 2m, with rough surfaces full of hollows which foster larval and egg settlement and give shelter to a number of organisms. The module is assembled to form pyramidal structures.

Finally, around 2000 research projects were set up to conceive new kinds of modules with the aim of cutting costs and at the same time, ensuring the systems highest ecologic efficiency and stability. The surveys carried out in the Adriatic Sea led to the devising of two kinds of systems which if used together fulfil the above mentioned requirements. They are the Tecnoreef” pyramidal module made of sea-friendly concrete, realised entirely with ecologic materials. 
The other is the plinth-pole module concrete.

    

PRELIMINARY RESULTS
CASTELDIMEZZO – MONTE CASTELLARO AB

Observed Aspects:

  • Macrozoobenthic community settled on  the artificial substrates
  • Macrozoobenthic community already present on the original mobile substrate
  • Evolution of the fish population gravitating around the system

SAMPLING PERIOD: 2004 – 2005
SAMPLING FREQUENCY: ANNUAL (SUMMER)
SAMPLING SITES: PYRAMIDS, PLINTHS, POLES
SAMPLING TECNIQUE: GRATTAGE (4 repetitions per each site)

MACROZOOBENTHIC COMMUNITY SETTLED
ON THE ARTIFICIAL SUBSTRATES

DATA ANALYSIS:

Density
Biomass
Total Specific Richness
Mean Specific Richness
Shannon-Weaver Diversity
Multidimensional Scaling

SUMMARY

The Tecnoreef module is manufactured with reinforced concrete made up of natural elements. It can be assembled in various combinations and it enables the construction of stable and complex structures on sea beds allowing an interaction with the surrounding environment.

The Tecnoreef module represents an innovative anti-erosion system which can also be used for the biological repopulation of the marine fauna for the safeguarding of the environment from drag fishing and as a system of anchorage.

The Tecnoreef module is patented therefore internationally protected.

All Tecnoreef products are subject to rigid quality control procedures both during their trial and permanent periods of use.

An Ens ISO 9001:2000 in circle Quality.

An Ens ISO 14001:2004 in circle environment, complying with the EMAS certification.

TECNOREEF is a registered Trade Mark

TECNOREEF is registered with the
CENTRAL CONSULTANTS REGISTRY of the European Community.

 

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